9.02 Stewarding Manual & SOP’s, 91 pages
A must have comprehensive selection of steward SOP’s ideal for setting your
Standards during pre-opening and a manual with guidelines for the day-to-day
Operation. Topics are: ware washing and decoy system, scraping and racking,
Dishwashing machine; its operation and usage, equipment cleaning procedures,
Crockery and cutlery cleaning, do’s and don’ts.
Food & Beverage
STEWARDING MAIN MANUAL
MANUAL & SOP’S
F&B Manual, Kitchen Section 5 (Stewarding)
Part 1, Guidelines for Chief
Ware washing and Decoy
System Scraping and Racking
Dishwashing Machine and its operations and chemical usage
Part 2, Equipment cleaning
Steward Machine / Equipment Cleaning Procedures and all utensils, crockery and cutlery cleaning
Do’s and Don’ts
Part 3, Sop’s for stewards
Guidelines for Chief Steward
WARE WASHING – GENERAL OPERATING CHARACTERISTIC
A good ware washing operation not only turns out clean china and glassware, but does it with maximum efficiency. The operation as a whole starts with the transporting of soiled tableware, delivery to the stewarding area, and scrapping and racking in preparation for washing. Only if all of these procedures are properly handled can the total ware washing function be considered efficient.
Scrapping, sorting & the “Decoy” system
- Personnel should be trained to do an initial sorting of glasses and dishes onto the stewarding table. If the tableware is dumped everywhere and any way onto the stewarding table, there will be breakage, and loss of space.
- In the so-called decoy system, dirty tableware is placed on the stewarding dish table grouped according to size and type. This allows the machine operator to rack the dishes and glassware speedily when he has enough of the same size and type to fill a rack. It is called the decoy system. The waiters therefore need to follow that system, as they are the key people to ensure a smooth operation for stewarding takes place. Decoys are especially valuable when training new personnel. In addition to speeding up the racking of tableware, the decoy system greatly reduces breakage, which on average costs 19 cents out of every ware washing.
- A refinement of the decoy system is to have overhead racks near the dish table is full, the machine operator puts it through the machine, In other words, the waiter racks the cups, and glasses, also bottles and teapots, as he removes them from the serving tray, thereby saving an operation and also allowing for more production through the dish machine. Further, the racks can be color coded for quick identification.
Removal of loose soil from dishes, such as meat scraps, vegetables, etc., is necessary before dishes are racked. A brush by hand (with a brush) across the plate as it picked up to be racked takes no time at all, but makes a big difference in final result as well as economy. Without scrapping, the wash solution in the dish machine quickly gets loaded with soil, with many bad effects: heavy detergent use, clogged overflow, clogged scrap trays, clogged wash jets, excessive foaming, and build up of lime deposits in the machine. Scrapping should be done directly into garbage bins bearing in mind the separation of the garbage.
- For the single-rack or rack conveyor dish machine, there is a correct rack and a wrong rack for every piece of tableware. The correct rack is one that provides full and uniform exposure to the tableware to the washing and rinsing sprays in the dish machine, and protects the tableware against breakage. For example, stemware, goblets and other tall glassware require racks with tall partitions around each item. Cups require special racks to protect handles. Cutlery requires a completely different type of racks. Trays and large platters need their own type of rack. This requires having an inventory of racks of different types. The trend today is to have all-plastic racks. They are lightweight, rust proof, resistant to chemical, quiet and most of all, offer the best protection against breakage. The supplier of the dish machine detergents should be knowledgeable about the wide variety of racks available and be able to recommend the proper inventory.
- Certain racks are specially made for placement on angled over shelves, which are great space savers and tie in well with the decoy system. (we do not have them, but are planning for future development)
- Where the decoy system is not used, personnel should be trained to rack dishes of similar size and type in a rack, to avoid blocking smaller dishes by larger dishes. Dishes should always be racked at a slant facing into the dish machine. Cutlery should always be racked in its own type of special rack, packed loosely with the eating end up.
The dish washing machine
The steward should have a good understanding of the principles of the dishwashing machine operation, which plays such a important role in food service sanitation. The National Sanitation Foundation has a guide for the field evaluation of the operation, maintenance and installation of spray-type dish washing machines which should be obtained for use as a reference. Following is a brief summary of the basic elements of spray-type machine dishwashers. (Also a copy of the FTO guidelines is available at chef’s office for cross reference)
- Description of the dish washing machine
All spray-type dishwashing machines have two basic functions: to wash and distain the dishes with a detergent solution, and to rinse off the solution. A machine may have additional stages – a flush, a pre-wash, a pre-rinse — but essentially all are two-step machines, washing and rinsing.
All of the larger machines, with which we are concerned, operate on a conveyor system for transporting the tableware through the machine. On some types, the tableware is placed in racks which are placed on a conveyor. In others, known as the flight type, the tableware is placed directly on the conveyor, which is constructed to hold the tableware. (not applicable to us)
Let’s follow a rack of dishes through a machine with the four stages: a pre-wash, wash, pre-rinse and final rinse. In the pre-wash, sprays of hot water or hot detergent solution, re-circulated by the pump, remove most of the “easy” soil from the dishes. The washed off soil, mostly greasy in nature, floats to the top of the solution in the tank and is removed through an overflow pipe.
When the rack reaches the wash stage, the process is repeated. In this stage, all of the soil and stains should be completely removed. Then the dishes will be taken into the pre-rinse stage, where sprays of hot water remove most if not all of the washing solution.
In the final rinse stage any remaining wash solution is removed. The rinse water in this stage is hot enough (180 – 190) to act as a sanitizer, killing bacteria. A rinse additive is also injected into the final rinse water to provide a “sheeting” effect, for quick drying and to prevent water spotting.
The spraying action in each stage is engineered to provide complete, uniform coverage through the use of rotating wash arms and rinse arms containing the spray nozzles.
- Operational elements affecting dishwashing machine results.
A good dishwashing machine operation is based on five elements: time, temperature, pressure, detergent and rinse additive.
TIME : Obviously, the longer a dish is exposed to the wash and rinse sprays, the more certain it is to come out clean. However, for maximum production, a shorter time might be required during peek hours. It is up to the dish wash controller to determine the best time. The recommendation of the machine manufacturer and the detergent supplier will usually take care of this element. Still, the steward should know that when unusual demands are made on a machine for extra production, it may be possible to speed up the speed and still get good results by also increasing temperatures, pressure and detergent concentration. But this might also increase the cost of washing per dish.
TEMPERATURE: Hot water is expensive, but cold water can cost even more if it results in poor results. With every degree of added heat the cleaning efficiency of a detergent solution is increased. Dishwashing machines are equipped with thermometers, which should be marked off at the desired temperature for the particular stage. Tank heaters supplied with a machine may not be adequate to maintain temperature at periods of peak production. If necessary, a booster heater should be installed and hot water lines insulated. Chief Steward to inform in such case.
PRESSURE: The physical impact of the spray against the dish is a vital part of the cleaning process. Normally, the machine pump can deliver the required pressure. However, in a dishwashing machine, the protein soils in the wash solution combine with detergent chemicals to cause a foaming. Foam literally strangles the water pump, reducing its efficiency by as much as half. Not only is the washing action poor as a result, but foam on the dishes is carried over into the rinse stage, making rinsing more difficult. Use of a detergent with a special built-in de-foamier, combined with more thorough scrapping, will prevent excessive foaming.
DETERGENT: Using the right detergent plays a vital part in achieving an efficient dishwashing machine operation. Using the right detergent implies two conditions: (1) that a choice of detergent is available, and (2) that the choice is based on an analysis of the individual operation.